Michelle started as an Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Minnesota (Twin Cities) in the fall of 2013. Her research is in the sociology of punishment, focusing in particular on the punitive turn in the U.S. and how prisons and community supervision programs changed as a result. Her dissertation focuses on the rise of probation supervision as a criminal justice sanction and its relationship to mass incarceration. Michelle was a recipient of the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and the Jacob K. Javits Department of Education Graduate Fellowship. For more information: http://www.soc.umn.edu/people/phelps_m.html(link is external).